Router Discovery: used since there is no default gateway configuration:
Every host must discover a router by sending out "Router Solicitation" messages.
Routers will respond with a "Solicited Router Advertisement".
Routers will also send out "Router Advertisements" at regular intervals.
Router advertisements contain:
The link-local address of the router;
Info about the link (e.g. default hop limit);
What addresses exist on this link (e.g. global or ULA).
SLAAC: StateLess Auto Address Configuration:
Generate interface ID and create link-local address (i.e. EUI-64);
Discover prefix on link through Router Advertisement messages;
Verify address uniqueness (DAD: Duplicate Address Detection).
DHCPv6: is not mandatory:
Stateful DHCPv6 keeps state of client address leases;
Provides additional information (e.g. DNS server, domain, etc.);
Similar to IPv4 DHCP (some message types have changed);
Stateful DHCPv6 is not commonly available in IPv6 stacks.
Address Resolution: IPv6 neighbour discovery:
Phase 1 - Early Adopters: IPv6 in IPv4 tunnelling from the home.
Phase 2 - Distributed IPv6 over Ethernet for unicast services.
Phase 3 - IPv6 over Ethernet for unicast and multicast services.
NAT444: (LSN - Large Scale NAT)
Private IPv4 <-NAT44-> Private IPv4 <-NAT44-> IPv4 Internet
Home N/W Access N/W Stateful
IPv6 <--> IPv6 <-NAT64-> IPv4 Internet
Home Access Stateful
Private IPv4 <-NAT46-> IPv6 <-NAT64-> IPv4 Internet
Home N/W Stateful Access N/W Stateful
Private IPv4 <--+
Private IPv4 <--+--> <-NAT44-> IPv4 Internet
Private IPv4 <--+
Home N/W Access N/W
Uses IPv6-only links between the customer and the provider.
Tunnels IPv4 traffic over IPv6.
The LSN performing the NAT44 has to also track the source address of the encapsulating IPv6 packet.
Disadvantage is that CPE needs to be upgraded (either software or hardware), but may not be a big problem:
DS Lite can also run in the protocol stack on an individual end system -- useful for:
NAT type comparison: